“GPR gave us a visual on where the problems were located. It was such a large area that I don’t know what else we could have done to visually see where the problems were.” Brad Rister, senior research engineer
Investigation uses GPR and chemical testing
The state made several attempts to shore up the settled pavement areas before initiating an investigative repair in 2007 that attempted to repair the most severely damaged section and get to the root of the causes of the settlement issues.
The effort was led by a team from the University of Kentucky, College of Engineering, Kentucky Transportation Center.
Led by Brad Rister, senior research engineer, the research began with an analysis of the economic impact to the travelling public if the pavement was to fail and the tunnel had to be closed. The study showed that if trucks had to find an alternate route, there would be about a four-hour diversion. User costs for that diversion, along with costs associated with delays for people living in Kentucky but commuting to work in Tennessee, amounted to about $1.1 million per day.
Based on the high level of economic impact, the state made the decision to find a permanent fix for the problem. But first they had to locate the voids and determine why the concrete pavement had settled in various areas throughout the tunnel. To do so, the research team performed GPR surveys and HGWT.
The tunnel was constructed with a 4 to 6 foot layer of crushed limestone-based material placed beneath the concrete pavement. By design, between 500,000 to 1.2 million gallons of groundwater flows beneath the tunnels on any given day through the 4 to 6 foot layer of crushed limestone. The HGWT testing showed that the groundwater inflow in certain areas is aggressive to calcite, so the calcium-rich limestone backfill material placed beneath the concrete pavement was dissolving and leaving the tunnel through the groundwater collection system every day. Laboratory tests confirmed that water samples with a calcium deficiency of less than 0.10 will start to dissolve limestone material. Some of the groundwater entering the tunnel was runoff from coal seams; when water runs through coal it changes chemical properties, becoming more acidic.
The testing results indicated that approximately 0.75 to 1.5 cubic yards of limestone sub-base material left the tunnel every month due to calcium-deficient ground water beneath it. “That’s about a wheelbarrow and a half of material leaving the tunnel in solution, dissolving and washing out through drainage every day,” said Rister. This led to about 70 to 150 square surface feet of new void area opening up beneath the concrete pavement every month.
The team then used GPR technology developed by Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (GSSI) to identify the location and size of the voids or cavities. The equipment, SIR-20 and SIR-3000 control units with a 900 MHz antenna and survey wheel, was used to scan from one end of the tunnel to the other on both tunnels, on 2 foot centrelines. Initially they pulled the antenna by walking, but as they grew more experienced, they progressed to attaching the equipment to a vehicle. Each side of the 4,600 foot tunnel takes about 4 to 5 hours to scan, or about 10 hours total.
The first void they found was 4 feet deep and 30 feet long; some of the void areas span across both lanes (30 feet wide) and extend from 1 to 70 feet in length.
“The concrete pavement was essentially performing as a bridge in these void locations,” said Rister. “Structural loading calculations indicate that a concrete slab if designed as a bridge would only be able to span 6 feet before starting to fail. The only reason the pavement structure did not completely collapse is because reinforcing steel is placed inside the concrete.”
Limiting repairs and reducing costs
According to Rister, the GPR equipment was able to delineate where the problems were and gave the team a way to continue to track the problem. They had originally started using the GPR technology in 2002 to conduct scans every six months to identify areas where new voids were appearing. Several costly but temporary fixes had been performed that involved digging a hole and backfilling it with concrete to support the structure. “GPR gave us a visual on where the problems were located,” said Rister. “It was such a large area that I don’t know what else we could have done to visually see where the problems were.”
The study determined that the best remediation strategy was to remove the existing limestone sub-base material and replace it with layers of crushed granite, separated by a geo-grid fabric, and a new 10-inch reinforced concrete pavement. Granite is inert and has properties not affected by the low pH water.
Rister explains that the mountain through which the tunnel goes is a thrust fault – the bottom is limestone, then there is a layer of sandstone and then fieldstone. In Tennessee, the water runs through limestone, while the water coming in from Kentucky was running through fieldstone, so it didn’t have calcium elements. Groundwater with no calcium to neutralize the acid was what dissolved the limestone fill in the tunnel. “Being able to confirm the geologic formation gave us confidence that there were no voids that needed to be fixed on one end of the tunnel, significantly reducing repair costs.”
The initial proposal was to replace approximately 2,800 feet of pavement in each tunnel at an approximate cost of $10 million. The GPR and HGWT results, however, allowed crews to limit repairs to the isolated areas and save considerably. Completed in 2012, the project cost around $3 million. The project took 35 days, with work done 24 hours a day.
As part of the tunnel’s routine maintenance sequence, scans will be performed with the GPR every six months. The equipment is a key component of a longterm inspection process that will assist in finding other distressed areas within the tunnel if they arise in the future.
According to Rister, whose group performs forensics work on failures of bridges; tunnels, and roads, GPR is an important tool available to obtain discernable information, providing an understanding of whether the problem is a sink hole or settling pavement, and if the cause is water trapped beneath a roadway. “Our success goes back to use of the GPR,” explains Rister. “Without it we wouldn’t have had the ability to image what’s going on beneath the surface”